this chapter with these terse and direct words, "Arianism was the first of the great heresies." Where are the footnotes to back up this claim? You won't find any footnotes in Belloc's books. I suppose he is confident in making the claim because "everyone knows" this to be true.
Sure, I didn't, and maybe you didn't either. But I've stated before that I don't know everything, so if I were you I would make a note to myself to check out these assertions. Perhaps by reading the works of St. Athanatius, for example, or more recently the words of Cardinal John Henry Newman. But for now, let's just let Belloc draw back the veil on the early Church and see what almost happened to Christianity.
And let me remind you that from almost the very beginning of the Church, it has not been "smooth sailing." Consider the words of St. John (1 John 2:18-19) when he states,
Children, it is the last hour; and just as you heard that the antichrist was coming, so now many antichrists have appeared. Thus we know this is the last hour. They went out from us, but they were not really of our number; if they had been, they would have remained with us. Their desertion shows that none of them was our number.
Yes, the bold is my emphasis, but I'm not the one making the point. St. John is clearly stating that even in his lifetime (6 - 100 AD), controversy and heresy were getting off the ground. Heck, it sounds like they were actually thriving because otherwise why would he mention it? This is shocking to no one who is deep in the scriptures, which is probably why Belloc didn't encumber every one of his points with footnotes. For the rest of us though, it wouldn't hurt for you to keep the Bible and the Cathechism close at hand while reading the rest of Belloc's book. And may I suggest Freiderich Knicht's helpful book as well?
Now the central tradition of the Church here, as in every other case of disputed doctrine, was strong and clear from the beginning. Our Lord was undoubtedly a man. He had been born as men are born, He died as men die. He lived as a man and had been known as a man by a group of close companions and a very large number of men and women who had followed Him, and heard Him and witnessed His actions.
But, said the Church, He was also God. God had come down to earth and become Incarnate as a Man. He was not merely a man influenced by the Divinity, nor was He a manifestation of the Divinity under the appearance of a man. He was at the same time fully God and fully Man. On that the central tradition of the Church never wavered. It is taken for granted from the beginning by those who have authority to speak.
Did I mention that everything hinges on authority for Belloc? And in the end, isn't that True?
Before I blather on, recall that at the start of the meeting for this book selection, I asked for volunteers to take a leadership role in guiding our discussion here. Up to the plate this week is "Mary R." What follows is Mary's brief synopsis of this weeks chapter and the high points as she saw them.
Let's give Mary R. a hearty welcome and a dose of gratitude for being the first out of the gate in my little experimental twist on the YIMC Book Clubs' rules of engagement: "all readers should be prepared to help discuss the book." Maybe Webster, Allison and I will eventually just bring the refreshments!
Mary R., you have the floor,
Chapter 3 – The Arian Heresy
I erred in my first reading of this chapter. Hillaire Belloc stated, “There is no greater error in the whole range of bad history than imagining that doctrinal differences, because they are abstract and apparently remote from practical things of life, are not therefore of intense social effect. … Merely to say that Arianism was what it was doctrinally is to enunciate a formula, but not to give the thing itself.”
I read “enunciate” as “eunicate." “Eunicate” is not a word (ed.- LOL) but “eunuch” is and that is what I did to the Arian heresy when I first heard about it. I removed the essential and kept the dogmatic part. I knew that Arianism concerned the denial of the divinity of Jesus but I did not take into consideration the society and the uniqueness of the era.
Belloc, referred to as HB going forward, corrected my view and gave me the history, the flesh and blood, of the Arian heresy. This chapter covers roughly 250 years from 300 to 550. It is about generals, emperors, men and motives. HB explains the cultural groundwork that allowed Arianism to take root.
There are the people who supported Arianism – the noble families who were reluctant to accept the social revolution of Catholicism; the intellectuals who were concerned about the loss of their social position; and the Army who supported it. It is the history of people and how their support strengthens or weakens the Church. And it is the doctrines that must be defended.
The competing doctrines were:
* Catholic Christianity: Jesus was at the same time fully God and fully man. “On that central tradition of the Church never wavered.”
* Arianism: Jesus was man and our Lord but not divine. He was not God.
The two main characters who supported opposing views were Areios and St. Athanasius. Both men were charismatic. Both were passionate and both believed what they taught. And finally, halfway through this chapter we find out how St Athanasius defeated Arianism. He was sincere, he was tenacious, he was Patriarch of Alexandria (2nd most important town in Eastern Empire), he enjoyed popular backing, he was a genius, and he was young when the Arian heresy started. He had a lot going for him but he also endured five exiles. Through it all, St Athanasius defended the doctrine.
If you are like me looking for answers, be careful not to read too fast this chapter or you might misread words, change meaning, and miss what you are looking for. Fortunately, I wrote this introduction and had to reread the chapter several times. Thus I have an answer to how I can personally combat heresy. No, I am not male therefore I cannot be a bishop. I don’t have a following of people to support my ideas. And I am not young. Finally, I shouldn’t look for an Army general (HB tells us how the Army was finally converted from Arianism).
What I did learn is that I need to study and understand Church teachings – the dogmas of what it is to be Catholic. I need to believe by both reason and faith. I need to listen to my bishop and give him my support as he leads me back to union with God.
Okay. Now it is your turn. What did you learn?
Thanks Mary R., and Bravo Zulu! I'm looking forward to our members' (and anyone else who has read the chapter) discussion in the comm-box below.